Effect of different condensed tannin-containing forages, forage maturity and nitrogen fertiliser application on the formation of indole and skatole in in vitro rumen fermentations

TitleEffect of different condensed tannin-containing forages, forage maturity and nitrogen fertiliser application on the formation of indole and skatole in in vitro rumen fermentations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsSchreurs, N.M., Tavendale M.H., Lane G.A., Barry T.N., Lopez-Villalobos N., and McNabb W.C.
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume87
Issue6
Pagination1076 - 1087
Date Published2007
ISBN Number00225142 (ISSN)
KeywordsCondensed tannins, Forage maturity, In vitro, Indole, Lolium perenne, Lotus corniculatus, Lotus pedunculatus, Nitrogen fertiliser, Skatole, Trifolium repens
Abstract

The objectives of this work were to establish the effect of seven different forages with a varied condensed tannin (CT) content, plant maturity and nitrogen fertiliser application on the ruminal formation of skatole and indole using an in vitro method designed to mimic rumen fermentation conditions. After 10 h of incubation, the concentration of indole and skatole was highest when incubating white clover (P < 0.05). Polyethylene glycol addition, to inhibit CT, showed that CT significantly reduced the formation of indole and skatole when incubating Lotus corniculatus, sulla, Dorynium rectum and Lotus pedunculatus (P < 0.01). Mature forage growth resulted in a significantly lower concentration of indole and skatole being formed in vitro compared to the incubation of new spring growth (P < 0.001). A higher application of nitrogen fertiliser to perennial ryegrass-based pasture resulted in a higher crude protein concentration in the plant and a significantly higher concentration of skatole formed in vitro (P < 0.001). Forages containing CT reduced the conversion of endogenous protein to indole and skatole and plants containing a higher CT concentration tended to be more effective, but compositional differences of CT between forages may also have had an influence. New forage growth or swards that had a high application of nitrogen fertiliser promoted the formation of indole and skatole. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

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