Utility of halofuginone lactate for the prevention of natural cryptosporidiosis of calves, in the presence of co-infection with rotavirus and Salmonella Typhimurium

TitleUtility of halofuginone lactate for the prevention of natural cryptosporidiosis of calves, in the presence of co-infection with rotavirus and Salmonella Typhimurium
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsAlmawly, J., Prattley D., French N.P., Lopez-Villalobos N., Hedgespeth B., and Grinberg A.
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Volume197
Issue1-2
Pagination59 - 67
Date Published2013
ISBN Number03044017 (ISSN)
Keywordsarticle, Calf diarrhea, cattle disease, cattle farming, cell count, controlled study, cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium parvum, disease severity, drug activity, drug dose comparison, drug efficacy, feces analysis, female, Halofuginone, halofuginone lactate, infectious diarrhea, male, mixed infection, mortality, newborn, nonhuman, oocyst, physical parameters, placebo, Randomized clinical trial, randomized controlled trial (topic), recommended drug dose, Rotavirus, Rotavirus infection, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhimurium infection, salmonellosis, scoring system
Abstract

Halofuginone lactate (HL) is registered in several countries for the prevention of calf cryptosporidiosis, but the compound's utility in the presence of co-infection with other enteropathogens is not well understood. We performed a randomized controlled field trial of the efficacy of HL for the prevention of natural calf cryptosporidiosis, in the presence of co-infection with rotavirus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Newborn calves on one farm were sequentially enrolled and allocated to a full dose (n= 15), half dose (n= 15), or a placebo control group (n= 15), using a randomized block design. The Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal specimens collected on Days 6, 8, 10, 14 and 20 were counted and the severity of the diarrhea was assessed using fecal consistency scores (solid, semisolid, or liquid). The oocyst numbers and fecal consistency scores were statistically compared between the groups. Ninety one percent of the calves shed Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts during the trial. The full dose group had a longer prepatent period than the control group, but no statistical difference in the number of oocysts was identified between the groups after controlling for the effects of sex and breed. The fecal consistency scores and mortality rates did not differ between the groups. These results indicated that the anti-. Cryptosporidium activity and clinical benefit of HL were limited. It is concluded that in order to maximize the clinical efficacy of HL in the field, diagnostic efforts should aim to rule out the presence of other enteropathogens. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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