|Title||Potential contribution of P-glycoproteins to macrocyclic lactone resistance in the cattle parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Demeler, J., Krücken J., Algusbi S., Ramünke S., De Graef J., Kerboeuf D., Geldhof P., Pomroy W.E., and Von Samson-Himmelstjerna G.|
|Journal||Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology|
|Pagination||10 - 19|
|ISBN Number||01666851 (ISSN)|
Resistance against macrocyclic lactones such as ivermectin is widespread among parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants and is rapidly increasing in cattle parasites. ABC transporters of the subfamily B, the so-called P-glycoproteins (Pgps) have been frequently implicated in ivermectin resistance and are a major cause of multi-drug resistance in protozoa and helminths. The Pgp inhibitor verapamil (VPL) dramatically enhanced susceptibility of the cattle parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora to ivermectin in vitro as measured in a larval developmental assay and a larval migration inhibition assay using third stage larvae. Moreover, VPL completely restored susceptibility to ivermectin in a resistant isolate resulting in virtually identical dose-response curves of susceptible and resistant isolates in the presence of VPL. Further characterisation of the molecular mechanisms resulting in Pgp-mediated ivermectin resistance is still hampered by the lack of molecular and biochemical information for Pgps of parasitic nematodes. Using PCR with degenerate primers, fragments of four different C. oncophora Pgps could be amplified and the Conpgp-2, previously implicated in macrocyclic lactone resistance in Haemonchus contortus, and Conpgp-3 full-length cDNAs were obtained by RACE PCR. The pgp sequences presented here contribute important data required to systematically screen resistant C. oncophora isolates for up- or down-regulation of Pgps and for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pgps to detect selection of specific Pgp alleles by anthelmintics as early as possible. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.